The 5 Stages of Team Development (2023)

TL;DR: Remote marketing teams have become more common, but unlike “traditional” teams that work in the same physical space, team leaders have the added responsibility of being more proactive and strategic about how they manage their teams. Understanding the five stages of team development enables you to get teams started, resolve conflicts more smoothly, share information effectively, achieve top results, and then review outcomes to keep finding ways to improve.

It’s one thing to assemble a group of high-performing remote marketers and another to get them to work together as a cohesive whole — especially when they’re all behind computer screens in different time zones. When your marketing team is remote, you can hire the most talented people regardless of where they’re located geographically. But you have to find a way to make sure team members are aligned and on the same page.All teams develop according to some natural patterns and using that knowledge, you can offer some guidance to build the kind of team that communicates well and finds better ways to collaborate and achieve the goals you’ve established. Here’s what you need to know.

Team development stages

The 5 stages of team development

  • Forming — Getting projects started

  • Storming — It’s inevitable, there’s going to be conflict

  • Norming — Finding the rhythm

  • Performing — High-performance is the name of the game

  • Adjourning — Success! You made it

As a way to improve teamwork and help companies become more efficient, researcher Bruce Wayne Tuckman published “Tuckman’s Stages” in 1965. It talked about the four stages of development all teams move through over time: forming, storming, norming, and performing.

In 1977, Tuckman and doctoral student Mary Ann Jensen added a fifth stage called adjourning to make it the “five stages of team development.”

The 5 Stages of Team Development (1)

Here’s how each stage works:

  • Forming: This is where team members first meet. It’s important for team leaders to facilitate the introductions and highlight each person’s skills and background. Team members are also given project details and the opportunity to organize their responsibilities.

  • Storming: At this stage, team members openly share ideas and use this as an opportunity to stand out and be accepted by their peers. Team leaders help teams in this stage by having a plan in place to manage competition among team members, make communication easier, and make sure projects stay on track.

  • Norming: By now, teams have figured out how to work together. There’s no more internal competition, and responsibilities and goals are clear. Each person works more efficiently because he or she has learned how to share their ideas and listen to feedback while working toward a common goal.

  • Performing: There’s a high level of cohesion and trust between team members. Teams are functioning at peak efficiency with less oversight from team leaders. Issues still come up, but at this point, teams have strategies for resolving problems without compromising timelines and progress.

  • Adjourning: Teams complete their project and debrief on what went well and what could be improved for future projects. Afterwards, team members move on to new projects. Now let’s look at how to use this model to amplify the strengths within your remote marketing team so that projects are successful and completed on time.

1. Forming — Getting projects started

Marketing is a collaborative task that requires different people with different expertise. There’s also a ton of background context in marketing—previous campaigns, style guides, brand guides, and more. Making sure your new hires have quick access to everything they need to get up to speed is essential to success with a remote marketing team. That’s why a company like Buffer, a social media management tool, makes information easily available for team members no matter where they work. They experimented with a lot of tools to find the right fit for them, but now they have exactly what they need. Carefully planning each phase of a project helps team members understand their role within the team and what’s expected of them. For example, when you start a new project, your lists of tasks could include the following:

  • A team intro meeting. Let’s say your team is working on a project to make it easier for users to navigate your product. You’ll need a copywriter for your content, an analyst to track and interpret the data you collect, a designer for website and app updates, and possibly a product manager. Have an all-hands meeting to introduce all of these players, including remote team members (virtually), so everyone knows where to go for answers. Make sure you schedule the meeting at a time that’s as close to business hours as possible in each time zone. You don’t want one member to have to wake up at 3 a.m. in order to be included. This is also a good time to clarify which times zones everyone works in so people don’t have to wait an entire day for an answer to important questions.

  • A skill-set review. It’s one thing for each team member to have a role. It’s quite another for team members to understand what specific responsibilities each person has and how that fits into the larger picture. Full knowledge of the skills that everyone brings to the table, like development, web design, marketing, or product knowledge. This background will help the team solve problems faster and get the right information to the correct person on the first try.

  • A project and outcomes overview: People need to know what’s expected and how they fit into the big picture. Explain what’s expected at intermediate deadlines, such as when you need to capture and analyze new user data, when to run A/B website testing, or when to do a soft launch to test updates.

  • A project timeline: Finally, let team members know how much time they have to work on the project, and make this timeline accessible to everyone. Break the project into smaller parts and assign timelines to each one. For example, the research stage might take a week or two, while updates to the interface take a month. Be clear on what needs to be accomplished at each checkpoint.

How to Create a Project Schedule

Project scheduling is a critical and crucial part of project management and planning. It’s the yellow-brick-road that, when followed, will lead you to the gleaming project closure right on time.

Learn more

What team leaders can do to help

During your first project team meeting, start by explaining specifically what each person will be working on. Next, explain the project so everyone is clear on their contribution and expected outcomes. If the goal of the project is to increase customer acquisition, you can explain that month-over-month growth has stalled and your strategy to solve this is to:

  • Find out what’s caused growth to plateau

  • Come up with a plan to fix the problem

  • Put the plan into action

At this point, explain how each team member is expected to help. For example, let the designers know that the user interface will be reviewed to see whether there’s an opportunity to make improvements.

Finally, share the project roadmap so the team can see the starting point, the proposed check-in points, and the end goal. This gives them insight into the bigger goal but also breaks down the timeline into smaller increments.

Tools to use

Choose a project management software that lets you plan the entire project and assign deadlines and responsibilities so everyone can see what tasks need to be accomplished. A cloud-based project management tool like provides those options with granular permissions for privacy, and it allows all team members to attach files or other collateral so materials are available in one place.

To accommodate your remote teams and to make sure your first project team meeting is productive, use a video conferencing platform like Zoom. This way team members can meet from anywhere and share their screen so that everyone can see the project details simultaneously. Record and store the meeting in so that team members can revisit it at any time if they need a reminder of the discussion.

2. Storming — It’s inevitable, there’s going to be conflict

Disagreements are unavoidable on teams, especially when each person on the team has a different perspective on how to approach the issues the team encounters. When you all work in the same location, it can be easier to hash out problems quickly. On a remote team, you need to be more thoughtful about the tools and the processes that you use to identify and deal with disagreements.

If you’re updating your product’s interface and team members don’t agree on the best way to design it, they have to revisit what isn’t working with the current interface and discuss different ways to resolve the problem. Any insights should be shared in a public forum so everyone in the company can learn.

What team leaders can do to help

Instead of letting team members battle it out in private messages select the best solution, be ready to invite them into a chat room to offer advice or ask some key questions. Very few team members will have your perspective on the entire project (or the full scope of your team’s segment of the project), so don’t be afraid to jump in.When you do find a good solution or process to help resolve difficult situations, make sure you document those immediately. The team can consult this record when future problems arise and make adaptations as needed. Your teams will soon learn that conflict is not to be feared, and that they have the tools to find a productive compromise.

Tools to use

Use a collaboration tool like Teamwork Spaces to organize and store your documentation. You’ll be able to access all of your important documents in one location so your team won’t waste time searching for important materials.Looking for some inspiration on how to use it? Here are 6 ways Teamwork Spaces can power your marketing team.

The 5 Stages of Team Development (3)

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3. Norming — Finding the rhythm

When teams work in the same space, it’s easy to see what everyone’s doing. Designers are talking to product managers to get direction, or product managers meet with analysts to talk about user data and reports. You can physically see and hear progress being made.It’s different for remote marketing teams because you can’t see what people are working on. To remedy this problem, put processes in place that make it easy for designers, for example, to see how content is developing so that they can anticipate when they’ll be able to complete their updates.

What team leaders can do to help

With remote teams, it’s easy to run on assumptions until you’re almost up against a deadline — and then you discover that you didn’t get the outcome you needed. Help your team check in with each other by holding daily stand-up meetings or mid-week progress reports to see if everyone is on track and has the materials they need.

It’s easy for everyone — including you — to get in a tunnel and focus on their own lists of tasks. Make sure everyone steps back each day or week to take a look at the larger picture.

Tools to use

Technology makes daily updates really simple. You can use Teamwork Chat to share information, or you can hold weekly 1:1 meetings with each team member on Zoom, then store the meeting notes in Confluence.In, you can generate instant progress reports that you can share with the entire team and/or stakeholders. Many teams find that this easy status update helps each team member become independently accountable for their time management, too. They can see what’s coming or what changes are happening in real time and adjust accordingly.

4. Performing — High-performance is the name of the game.

Patty McCord, former chief talent officer at Netflix, explains high-performing teams this way:

“The constants are that high-performing teams have incredible focus and a really shared sense of what their metrics are—meaning not only what they are trying to achieve, but also what success and quality look like. That clarity around vision, success, metrics, and quality allows them to do amazing work.”

This is the sweet spot, but it doesn’t come easily. In the performing stage, teams are in sync and work more efficiently together than at any previous stage. Teams that have been working closely for some time have resolved enough issues to understand what success looks like for them. For example, success can be anything from higher customer acquisition to a positive shift in the metrics they’re tracking.

To get to this point, consistency is key. If you’ve asked team members to update progress documents weekly, check to make sure it’s being done. Set reminders for yourself to check in with team members, or send calendar events so that making updates is always top of mind and getting done. The main goal here is to keep the momentum going so that the project wraps up on time.

What team leaders can do to help

Keep reminding the team to check in with each other regularly in person or via instant chat, but stay out of their way. They will waste time and lose their focus if they have to answer frequent, unscheduled questions about what they’re working on.Encourage team members to develop a schedule filled with large blocks of time that are free from interruptions like meetings or check-ins. In this world of constant notifications, it’s easy for people to get derailed and forget which goals are really important. This is especially important for creative and development teams.

Tools to use

For your team to work collaboratively with few interruptions, they need tools that operate intuitively and will save them time. Find tools that don’t require hours of training and automate basic functions to get the job done. For example, if the project includes updating social media, sending email marketing campaigns, or even creating lead magnets, a tool like HubSpot is great for this level of marketing automation. Before committing to a tool, give your team some time to work with it and test it out to make sure it fits their needs. Lots of tools offer free trials, so use that time to experiment and check its compatibility with other products you use. By starting with a free trial, you have the freedom to learn as much as possible about the product before committing to it.

5. Adjourning — Success! You made it

This is the time for your team to finally step back to see what they’ve accomplished. Two things happen at this point:

  • Teams review the last few weeks or months to celebrate their successes.

  • Teams take an honest look at what didn’t go well and pinpoint where there’s room for improvement.

At the end of the project, set up an online meeting where team members come together to discuss the entire project, from the successes to the frustrations. Ask them to prepare examples beforehand outlining what worked and what didn’t, and then give each person five minutes to share their thoughts. Document the comments so that it’s easy to see which trends emerge and what changes need to be made going forward.

What team leaders can do to help

When looking back to find opportunities for improvement, set up a brainstorming session with your team. Get your team members to prep ideas to share at the meeting. For example, ask team members these types of questions to uncover the good and the bad in each project:

  • What would you change about the team and project introduction process?

  • What additional documentation do we need for issue resolution?

  • What kind of support can team leaders offer?

  • What tasks took the most time?

  • If you were to do a similar project again, what team members would you add or remove as

  • a way to improve the team’s efficiency and expertise?

  • Which tools worked best? Which hindered progress?

Tools to use

It might not be possible to plan an in-person meet-up, especially if your projects have short turnaround times. Instead, use Zoom to host the debriefing meeting. Create an agenda and establish a document to track ideas and comments during the meeting. Share a link to these meeting notes afterwards so that everyone has access and can review it later. Organize the agenda so that each team member has five to ten minutes to talk through their insights and ideas. Allow extra time to review the ideas the team shares and to answer questions.

Be flexible and learn as you go

Your remote teams will go through the 5 stages of team development whether or not they have your guidance, but you can accelerate their progress when you know how to support them along the way. When you can identify which development phase your teams are in, it’s much easier to provide exactly the direction they need so they feel more focused and connected.


What are the five 5 stages of group development explain each stage briefly? ›

These stages are commonly known as: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Tuckman's model explains that as the team develops maturity and ability, relationships establish, and leadership style changes to more collaborative or shared leadership.

What are the five 5 stages of team development as well as requirements of a project manager at each stage? ›

To ensure the team runs as smoothly as possible, and goals are hit, it's in everyone's best interest to implement the five stages of team development: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.

What are the stages of team development and explanation? ›

Research has shown that teams go through definitive stages during development. Bruce Tuckman, an educational psychologist, identified a five-stage development process that most teams follow to become high performing. He called the stages: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.

What is Stage 5 development? ›

5 Stages of Child Development
The 5 Stages Of Child Development
Stage 1Cognitive Development
Stage 3Speech and Language Development
Stage 4Fine Motor Skill Development
Stage 5Gross Motor Skill Development
1 more row
Jan 28, 2020

Who gave 5 stage group development? ›

Psychologist Bruce Tuckman developed his group development model in 1965 to explain how healthy teams cohere over time. Tuckman's model identifies the five stages through which groups progress: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.

How to use the 5 stages of team development indeed? ›

The 5 stages of group development with examples
  1. Forming. The forming stage of group development occurs when a project begins or when a new team member is introduced into the workplace. ...
  2. Storming. ...
  3. Norming. ...
  4. Performing. ...
  5. Adjourning.

What are the five stages of team development essay? ›

They include forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning (Atherton, 2009). Forming stage is where team members come together to build a group.

What are the five stages of team development describe each stage and how that might appear in a healthcare setting? ›

5 Stages of Team Formation Nurses Might Want to Know
  • Forming. In this stage, most team members are positive and polite. ...
  • Storming. Next, the team moves into the storming phase, where people start to push against the boundaries established in the forming stage. ...
  • Norming. ...
  • Performing. ...
  • Adjourning.

Which are the 5 elements required to build a team? ›

Five elements of an effective team
  • Have a common purpose. Karkoulas says that a good team must have a common purpose or goal, which must be clearly understood by all team members. ...
  • Promote shared values. ...
  • Enable independence. ...
  • Ensure mutual accountability. ...
  • Recognize success.
Feb 10, 2016

What are the five 5 project management process groups discuss? ›

Generally speaking, projects require five process groups — initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing. These are known as the PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) process groups.

What are the 5 phases of the project lifecycle comprised of and what order do they commonly occur select one correct answer? ›

The 5 basic phases in the project management process are:

Project Planning. Project Execution. Project Monitoring and Controlling. Project Closing.

What is an example of team development? ›

A simple example of team development is when co-workers from different departments work on the same project. At first, they may not understand each other's roles or what to expect. They must work together, divide up the responsibilities for the project and complete it on time.

How do you contribute to a team to success? ›

Here are five steps you can follow to achieve team success:
  1. Maintain open communication. ...
  2. Establish a shared goal. ...
  3. Ensure all team members stay committed. ...
  4. Prepare your team to adapt together. ...
  5. Create an environment of respect. ...
  6. Make decisions together.
Feb 27, 2023

How do you build an effective team? ›

Here are six key steps to building and maintaining a strong, cohesive and effective team:
  1. Define the purpose. Clearly define the purpose of the team, including the overall outcome it has been brought together to achieve. ...
  2. Assemble the team. ...
  3. Determine the goals. ...
  4. Set expectations. ...
  5. Monitor and review. ...
  6. Celebrate and reward.

What are the benefits of Stage 5? ›

Benefits of Stage V Engines
  • Lower Fuel Consumption. Replacing or refitting plant machinery to comply with Stage V legislation will inevitably drive up outgoings for all businesses involved. ...
  • Reduced Noise Output. ...
  • Increased Power Density. ...
  • Lower Maintenance Costs.

What would be the characteristics of stage 5? ›

Stage 5: At this stage both rates remain relatively low, but the death rate is now higher than the birth rate. Total population is still high but starting to decline due to the birth rate falling (to 7 per 1,000) below the death rate (9 per 1,000).

What are the five stages of group development PDF? ›

  • Stage 1: Forming. In the Forming stage, personal relations are characterized by dependence. ...
  • Stage 2: Storming. ...
  • Stage 3: Norming. ...
  • Stage 4: Performing. ...
  • Stage 5: Adjourning.

What is the meaning of norming? ›

Norming occurs when team members have developed a mutual understanding of their roles and expectations of one another. In this stage, the team has started to gel and people are working together. The group is now able to accomplish tasks by working together cooperatively.

What is an example of forming stage? ›

In a business environment, the forming stage can be a new hire's first day. When he or she joins a brand new team, thereby shifting that team's dynamic. The team then has to go through the forming stage again. Another example might be the forming of a new team for the planning of the holiday party.

What is the importance of team development? ›

Through correct team development, your team members will have plenty of opportunities to build rapport with a foundation of acceptance. When people trust one another, they're more likely to share ideas, collaborate effectively and make the right decisions for everyone and the project.

What is meant by team development? ›

Team development is the process by which teams come together and organize themselves to achieve their objectives through progressing tasks and developing effective relationships both within and outside the team. A well-used team development model was defined by American psychologist Bruce Tuckman.

How do you go from norming to performing? ›

Conclusion: How to move from norming to performing

Use empathy, emotional intelligence and active listening to know when to strive for more and when to give your team room to breathe and recover. Reaching the performance stage requires a fine balance and you may not get it right every time.

What is the conclusion of the stages of team development? ›

Conclusion. Looking at the development of the group, it is evident that it evolved through the four phases of the group development model, which are forming, storming, norming and finally performing. This shows that the group developed like any other group, and its development is according to the four-phase model.

What are four 4 stages of team development based on the above scenario? ›

The stages are: forming, followed by storming, norming and performing. Identifying each of the 4 stages of team development helps you underscore your team's needs during each one.

Which of the five stages of team development is the third one? ›

Stage 3: Norming Stage

They learn to trust one another and become comfortable around one another. The third stage of team development occurs when everyone on the team has developed a strong sense of belonging and trust.

What happens during the storming stage? ›

In the storming stage, people start to push against the established boundaries. Conflict or friction can also arise between team members as their true characters – and their preferred ways of working – surface and clash with other people's.

What is a characteristic of a successful work team? ›

Successful teams often welcome diverse thoughts and opinions that help them solve problems and complete tasks in creative ways. Effective communication also involves active listening, where members make a conscious effort to hear their teammates' ideas and reflect before responding to them.

How do you describe team dynamic? ›

Team dynamics describes the behavioral relationships between the members of a group. The dynamic between them includes how they interact, communicate and cooperate. How well your team can do these things directly influences what it can accomplish.

What are the big five in teamwork? ›

The core components of teamwork include team leadership, mutual performance monitoring, backup behavior, adaptability, and team orientation.

What are 5 common responsibilities of team members? ›

Honey's Five Team Roles
  • LEADER: makes sure team has clear objectives and members are engaged. ...
  • CHALLENGER: questions effectiveness and drives for results. ...
  • DOER: encourages progress and takes on practical jobs. ...
  • THINKER: produces ideas and thinks through those proposed by others. ...
  • SUPPORTER: eases tension and promotes harmony.

What are the five 5 common phases shared by most projects? ›

Developed by the Project Management Institute (PMI), the five phases of project management include conception and initiation, project planning, project execution, performance/monitoring, and project close.

How do you manage 5 projects? ›

7 strategies to manage and track multiple projects
  1. Plan before starting anything. When you manage multiple projects, not much should be left to chance. ...
  2. Use every tool at your disposal. ...
  3. Prioritize tasks. ...
  4. Adjust your plan through regular reviews. ...
  5. Know when to delegate. ...
  6. Stay focused. ...
  7. Communicate with team members.
Aug 24, 2022

What are the 5 main activities that project managers do during execution phase of project? ›

What happens during the execution phase?
  • Execute the project scope.
  • Manage the team's work.
  • Recommend changes and corrective actions.
  • Manage project communication with stakeholders.
  • Conduct team-building exercises.
  • Celebrate project milestones and motivate team members.
Aug 24, 2022

What are the 5 continuous phases of the project cycle write it in the correct order? ›

Five Phases of The Project Management Lifecycle
  • Project Initiation.
  • Project Planning.
  • Project Execution.
  • Project Monitoring and Control.
  • Project Closure.
Apr 10, 2017

What are the basic stages of project cycle and what is involved in each stage? ›

This project management process generally includes four phases: initiating, planning, executing, and closing. Some may also include a fifth “monitoring and controlling” phase between the executing and closing stages. By following each step, a project team increases the chance of achieving its goals.

What is the fifth and final phase of the project life cycle? ›

Phase 5: Project Closure

The fifth and final phase of a project's life cycle is project closure. At this stage, the deliverables are finalised and presented to the client or stakeholder for approval.

What is a key step in teamwork? ›

Essentially, team members must know one another well enough to be confident in their teammates' ability to do good work, while taking ownership of their own part of each project as well. What's more, that culture should start at the top.

How do you lead a team with no experience? ›

7 Management tips for first-timers
  1. Know yourself and your organization. ...
  2. Share your assets. ...
  3. Value and practice transparency. ...
  4. Schedule regular one-on-one meetings. ...
  5. Recognize great work. ...
  6. Focus on team performance. ...
  7. Learn to delegate.
Jun 2, 2022

What makes a good leader? ›

Good leaders possess self-awareness, garner credibility, focus on relationship-building, have a bias for action, exhibit humility, empower others, stay authentic, present themselves as constant and consistent, become role models and are fully present.

What makes a team strong? ›

Effective teams pursue a common outcome and have a common goal they want to reach. Healthy teams have mutual respect between members of the team and management. Plus, team members value one another's contributions and skill sets. Having a team allows people with different strengths to work together.

How do you bring a team together? ›

4 collaboration skills that bring teams together
  1. Know your team and how they communicate.
  2. Be realistic about timing.
  3. Make room for mistakes (and praise)
  4. Keep in touch.

Which are the 5 stages? ›

The five stages – denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance – are often talked about as if they happen in order, moving from one stage to the other. You might hear people say things like 'Oh I've moved on from denial and now I think I'm entering the angry stage'.

When considering the five stages of group development it is important to remember that? ›

Question: When considering the five stages of group development, it is important to remember that groups will spend equal amounts of time in each stage. Ob groups will progress through the five stages in exactly the same order.

What is adjourning stage of group development? ›

Developed by Bruce Tuckman in 1977, the adjourning stage is the fifth, and final, stage of group development that occurs when a group wraps up its work and then dissolves. At this time, it is important for members of the team to get appropriate closure as well as recognition for the work they accomplished.

What are the fives stages of change? ›

  • The Stages of Change. The stages of change are:
  • Stage One: Precontemplation. ...
  • Stage Two: Contemplation. ...
  • Stage Three: Preparation/Determination. ...
  • Stage Four: Action/Willpower. ...
  • Stage Five: Maintenance. ...
  • Techniques to help you progress through your change plan.

What are the 5 stages of moving on? ›

They are denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance, according to Mental-Health-Matters. These are the natural ways for your heart to heal.

What are the 5 stages of team development Google Scholar? ›

The model reflects the stages of forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning on group dynamics on a small group of graduate students studying business major at the American University in the Emirates.

What is the life cycle of a team? ›

These changes are called Team Life Cycle changes. The five stages of team development are Formation, Criticism, Synthesis, Accomplishment, and Completion. Understanding these stages is critical because teams progress and regress through these stages of development and they are an indicator of performance.

What are the most important stages of development? ›

Recent brain research indicates that birth to age three are the most important years in a child's development.

Why is it important to know the stages of development? ›

The most important reason for monitoring each child's development is to determine whether a child's development is on track. Looking for developmental milestones is important to understanding each child's development and behavior. Milestones can help explain a child's behavior.

What happens in storming stage? ›

Stage 2: Storming

As the team begins to move towards its goals, members discover that the team can't live up to all of their early excitement and expectations. Their focus may shift from the tasks at hand to feelings of frustration or anger with the team's progress or process.

What is an example of the storming stage? ›

Storming Stage Example

It can be a petty clash of personalities or incompatibility in communication styles. Or it could be something more serious, such as a disagreement about the team's goals. It could even exhibit itself as one team member accusing another of not pulling their weight in the project.

What is the transforming stage? ›

Transforming involves the team not breaking up but instead moving onto other tasks and objectives (from what I understand). We also may help for students to make their essay for the shortest time and got what they really want at the website: I found these stages of team development quite relevant.


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